VoIP, or Voice over Internet Protocol, is the transmission of voice traffic over Internet protocol (IP)-based networks. VoIP systems use session control protocols, which control the set-up and overall tear-down of calls and audio codecs, guaranteeing the digital audio transmission of speech over an IP network. To create a VoIP connection, a user establishes a hi-speed broadband connection over a router and a VoIP gateway. The VoIP gateway is a network device which helps to convert voice and fax calls between a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and an Internet Protocol (IP) network. This gateway is placed somewhere in direct proximity to the connected Internet service. It converts the analog signals into digital format, which are in turn bifurcated into smaller 'packets.' This process is similar to the data transmission that takes place in a computer. These packets, embedded with instructions, are then sent to their final destination. Once this process is over, these packets pass through (with instructions from the other side) another gateway where they are reconverted into the normal analog format by the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
NETmundial (Alternatively, the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance) was a two-day global meeting on the topic of Internet governance, attended by a group of stakeholders including government officials, representatives of global Internet organizations, civil society, and academia. The meeting took place in São Paulo, Brazil between 23-24 April 2014. It was hosted by the Brazilian government in the Grand Hyatt Hotel. The purpose of the meeting was to highlight issues relating to Internet Governance after the leaked NSA documents revealed US-lead spying of citizens and companies, and provide shared principles and steps forward for the multistakeholder community that would inform further global discussions on the governance of the Internet. (Read the full article...)